Dictionary of Physical Geography

Szabolcs Ákos Fábián

University of Pécs

Zoltán Karancsi

University of Szeged

János Kovács


Dénes Lóczy


Gábor Varga



Table of Contents

I. Glossary
1. Geology
2. Geomorphology
3. Climatology
4. Hydrology
5. Biogeography and Soils
II. Tests
6. True or false
7. Simple choice
8. Graphic tests
9. Find pairs
10. Multiple choice

List of Figures

1.1. The concept of dip angle on Alpine shales [photo by János Kovács]
1.2. Internal stucture of the Earth
1.3. The Giant's Causeway: columnar basalt in Northern Ireland [photo by János Kovács]
1.4. Conglomerate on Jakab Hill, Mecsek Mountains [photo by János Kovács]
1.5. Cross-bedded sand and sandy gravel in the Billege Forest, Hungary [photo by János Kovács]
1.6. Conceptual model of maar formation
1.7. The Baltic Shield near Turku [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
1.8. Solfatara on Vulcano, Eolian Islands [photo by János Kovács]
2.1. Landforms of abrasion (wave erosion) origin
2.2. Abrasional cave on Vulcano Island [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
2.3. Abrasional coast on Gozo, Malta [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
2.4. Abrasional terrace in Southern England [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
2.5. Generalized block diagram of Alpine landforms
2.6. The badlands of Kazár, Northern Hungary [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
2.7. Barchan in the Eastern Great Erg, Tunisia [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
2.8. Generalized block diagram of coastal landforms
2.9. The caldera of Thíra [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
2.10. Constrained aeolian landform in the Eastern Great Erg [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
2.11. Generalized block diagram of subglacial landforms 1 = glacial spillway, 2 = terminal moraine, 3 = esker, 4 = drumlin
2.12. Sand desert: Eastern Great Erg, Tunisia [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
2.13. Erratic block in Southern Finland [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
2.14. The Aletsch Glacier. [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
2.15. Generalized block diagram of postglacial landforms
2.16. Kettle lake (soll) in Southern Finland [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
2.17. Lateral moraine on the Aletsch Glacier [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
2.18. Medial moraine on the Aletsch Glacier [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
2.19. Abrasional niche on Malta [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
2.20. Longitudinal dune in the Libyan Desert, Egypt [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
2.21. Longitudinal dune in the Libyan Desert, Egypt [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
2.22. Landslide on Vulcano [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
2.23. Abrasional stack on Vulcano [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
2.24. Stalagmite in the Mulu National Park, Borneo, Eastern Malaysia [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
2.25. Conceptual model of the formation of tablelands
2.26. Mesa in the Libyan Desert: Wadi el Rayan near the Faiyum Oasis [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
2.27. Tafoni on Corsica [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
2.28. Terminal moraine sequence exposed by a quarry, Southern Finland [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
2.29. Transversal dunes in the Eastern Great Erg [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
2.30. Volcanic cone on the island of Salina, Eolian Islands [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
3.1. The intensity of rainfall in the Carpathian Basin during the passage of a cold front source: Hungarian Meteorological Survey
3.2. Changes in the thickness of the ozone layer over Antarctica, 1979-2010 source: Earth Observatory
3.3. Lightning flash related to a cold front above Transdanubia source: Hungarian Meteorological Survey
4.1. Monument of the flood of 21 April 2006 at Szelevény, Hungary. [photo by Szabolcs Ákos Fábián]
4.2. Concepts of protected and active floodplain
4.3. Meandering river on Borneo, Eastern Malaysia. [photo by Zoltán Karancsi]
4.4. The Triple Körös River at Öcsöd at low water [photo by Szabolcs Ákos Fábián]
4.5. Rákóczi Spring in the Mátra Mountains [photo by Krisztina Fábián]
4.6. The Békésszentandrás Dam, built for navigation and electricity generation (none of these functions are realized) [photo by Szabolcs Ákos Fábián]
5.1. Soil degradation: bare surface caused by intensive cultivation at Martonfa, Southern Baranya Hills. [photo by Gábor Varga]
5.2. Beech forest on the northern slope of the Eastern Mecsek Mountains near Kisújbánya [photo by Gábor Varga]
5.3. Beech forest in the Eastern Mecsek Mountains near the Lendület Spring [photo by Gábor Varga]
5.4. An endemic plant species in the Carpathian Basin: Paeonia banatica [photo by Gábor Varga]
5.5. Gallery forests of the Nile: green bands across the deserts of Egypt
5.6. Typical sclerophyllous tree on the Mediterranean island of Brač [photo by Gábor Varga]
5.7. Orange tree [photo by Gábor Varga]
5.8. Karst shrub forest on the steep southern slopes of the island of Brač, Dalmatian Coast. Hvar Island in the background [photo by Gábor Varga]
5.9. Karst shrub forest on the southern slope of the Mecsek Mountains, above Pécs, in winter [photo by Gábor Varga]
5.10. Palm tree on the Dalmatian coast [photo by Gábor Varga]
5.11. Palm trees at Supetar, Brač, Southern Dalmatia [photo by Gábor Varga]
5.12. Phytogeographic regions of the Earth
5.13. Remnant of a disappearing reed-bed on the eastern shore of the Tihany Peninsula. The northern shore of Lake Balaton in the background, between Balatonfüred and Balatonfűzfő [photo by Gábor Varga]
5.14. The Széptölgyes Lakes (Tolna Hills) with extensive reed-beds [photo by Gábor Varga]
5.15. Slopes in the Dolomites (Southern Alps) affected by rill and gully erosion [photo by Gábor Varga]
5.16. Rill erosion on the eastern margin of the Marcali Ridge, Inner Somogy Hills [photo by Gábor Varga]
5.17. Paprika: one of the major spice crops in Hungary [photo by Gábor Varga]
5.18. Feather grass (Stipa): protected plant of sand grasslands [photo by Gábor Varga]
5.19. Sand grassland vegetation with feather grass (Stipa borysthenica) in the Ürge Meadow, Paks [photo by Gábor Varga]
5.20. Xerophyllous cactus (Opuntia) in the Mediterranean [photo by Gábor Varga]
5.21. Polygonal cracking on desiccating clay surface [photo by Gábor Varga]
5.22. Zoogeographic regions of the Earth